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The masks are made of various materials, and some of them have additional filters, thanks to which they are able to capture the smallest microparticles. Most often, the masks are divided into:
So-called Surgical Masks
European Standard 14683 which ensures effective protection of users imposes stringent standards on surgical masks. It specifies design and operational requirements as well as methods of testing masks. During compliance tests, several dozen parameters are tested, assessing the bacterial filtration efficiency (the so-called BFE, expressed in “%”), which is measured in two ways, to determine pressure drop in order to measure breathing resistance and leakage resistance. The fewer bacteria penetrate, the higher efficiency of the mask is.
Type II and IIR masks made of 3-layer nonwoven fabric offer high antimicrobial and antiviral protection, assuming that they are used for a limited time and changed regularly. In times of the SARS-Covid19 pandemic, the use of type II and IIR masks is recommended as they provide protection for doctors.
The masks are made of the following 3 layers:
FFP filtering half masks
The European standard EN 149 divides filtering half masks into classes depending on the guaranteed degree of protection. The higher the type of FFP protection is, the tighter the mask is and the better it protects our respiratory system. We can also distinguish disposable and reusable masks.